Astrofotografia – introducere

In memoria lui Sabin Fota, care a trecut de curand in nefiinta, publicam un articol pe care acesta l-a pus la dispozitie siteului nostru pe 10 Sept. 2012, articol care ulterior a aparut si pe alte siteuri.

Ce este astrofotografia? Păi, aşa cum îi spune numele se ocupă cu fotografierea elementelor care depăşesc cadrul terestru şi anume Luna, planetele, Soarele, stelele, roiurile de stele, nebuloasele şi galaxiile.

Marea nebuloasă din Orion – M42Marea nebuloasă din Orion – M42

 

Deşi este un hobby uşor de practicat în stadiile incipiente, care include în mare parte montarea unei camere pe un trepied şi utilizarea funcţiei Bulb a aparatului foto, în stadiile cele mai avansate devine foarte dificilă, implicând de la utilizarea unor monturi ecuatoriale care compensează mişcarea de rotaţie a Pământului permiţând expuneri foarte lungi sau consultarea prognozelor meteo până la construirea unui Flatbox, cu ajutorul căruia se corectează erorile sistemului optic (vignetare, fire de praf de pe senzorul optic al camerei foto).

Dar nu trebuie să vă descurajaţi, puteţi să începeţi cu un DSLR instalat pe un trepied şi să faceţi star trails, să avansaţi la DSLR-ul montat în piggy-back pe un telescop şi să sfârşiţi prin a face astrofotografie cu camera montată în focusul unui telescop. Este uşor şi este greu! De voi depinde!

Startrails – Steaua Polară – mişcarea Pământului în jurul propriei axe Canon 50D prin Canon 24-105mm (F=28mm), 600”, f/4, ISO200

 

De fapt, astrofotografia este atât de avansată încât firme specializate construiesc camere specializate cu senzoriCCD, capabile de expuneri foarte lungi, iar pentru a nu apărea zgomotul în imaginea finală folosesc sisteme de răcirecare menţin temperatura de lucru a senzorului camerei la temperaturi cu 40, 60 sau 100 de 0C sub temperaturamediului, dar vorbesc deja despre sisteme avansate care costa mii, chiar zeci de mii de euro.

Camerele DSLR au revoluţionat astrofotografia, făcând-o mai uşoara decat înainte, producători de aparatură foto,gen Canon, s-au orientat şi ei spre clienţii din această zonă şi astfel a apărut Canon 20Da, primul DSLR dedicatiubitorilor de astrofotografie şi mai apoi Canon 60Da care a apărut pe piaţă anul acesta – filtrul infraroşu al camereieste modificat făcând camera mai sensibilă la frecvenţa specifică de emisie a hidrogenului (656 nm), deci şi la luminaroşie a norilor de gaz galactici (nebuloasele).

Astrofotografia pentru începători sau “uşoară” presupune fotografierea stelelor, a constelaţiilor, a Lunii şi aSoarelui (obligatoriu cu filtru solar).

Luna – Canon 50D prin refractor William Optics 90mm (F=430mm), 1/100, ISO 100

Tranzitul planetei Venus peste discul Soarelui, 06.iun.2012 Canon 50D prin refractor William Optics 90mm(F=430mm) cu filtru solar Baader, 1/400, ISO 100

 

Constelatia Orion Canon 50D prin Canon24-105mm(F=24mm), in piggyback pe CGEM, 119”, f/4, ISO400

 

Astrofotografia avansată care se împarte în 2 clase:

  1. Cu focale mai mici de 1000mm – mai acesibilă (Luna, Soarele, comete, deep sky de câmp larg – roiuri stelare, nebuloase, galaxii)
  2. http://www.astrosnake.com/images/gallery/Comets/C2009_P1_Garradd/C2009_P1_Garradd.jpg

    Cometa C/2009 P1 Garradd şi roiul globular M51 Canon 450Da prin SkyWatcher 80ED PRO (F=384mm), montură Losmandy GM-8, 11x240”, ISO 1600

    Galaxiile M81 şi M82 Canon 50D prin refractor William Optics 90mm(F=430mm), montură Celestron CGEM, 20x300”+4x480”, ISO800

    Galaxiile M81 şi M82 Canon 50D prin refractor William Optics 90mm(F=430mm), montură Celestron CGEM, 20x300”+4x480”, ISO800

    Nebuloasa Iris Canon 50D prin refractor William Optics 90mm(F=430mm), montură Celestron CGEM, 62x300”, ISO80

  3. Cu focale de peste 1000mm – cea mai dificilă (planete şi deep sky de câmp îngust – detalii din nebuloase, galaxii, roiuri de galaxii)

http://www.astrosnake.com/images/gallery/Planets/Saturn/Saturn.jpg

Saturn Canon PowerShot A60 prin Newton 200mm (F=1200mm), 30×1/40, ISO 400

 

Ideea de bază a astrofotografiei avansate este următoarea: senzorul camerei trebuie să facă o expunere cât mai lungă pentru a capta cât mai multă lumină de la obiectul care oricum are o luminozitate foarte scăzută iar in cele mai multe cazuri, când se face astrofotografie deepsky (nebuloase, galaxii) obiectele sunt invizibile ochiului uman.

Într-un articol viitor voi dezbate mai pe larg unele aspecte specifice astrofotografiei şi anume, cum se face focusarea, cum se face ghidajul sau cum se clasifică monturile şi cum functionează o montură ecuatorială.

Multumesc lui Cătălin Păduraru (http://www.astrosnake.com/index.htm) pentru că a fost de acord să îmi pună la dispoziţie câteva capturi din arhiva sa.

Sabin Fota, 29.aug.2012

http://sevenastronomy.blogspot.ro/

 

52 Responses

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don’t be discouraged, you can start with a DSLR mounted on a tripod and do star trails, progress to DSLR piggy-backed on a telescope and end up doing astrophotography with the camera mounted on the focus of a telescope. It’s easy and it’s hard! It depends on you!

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Although it is an easy hobby to practice in the early stages, which mostly involves mounting a camera on a tripod and using the bulb function of the camera, in the more advanced stages it becomes very difficult, involving the use of equatorial mounts that compensate for the movement of rotation of the Earth allowing very long exposures or the jobs near me consultation of weather forecasts until the construction of a Flatbox, with the help of which the errors of the optical system are corrected (vignette, dust on the optical sensor of the camera)

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Îmi pare rău să aud despre trecerea în neființă a lui Sabin Fota. Articolul pe care l-a pus la dispoziție site-ului dvs. în 2012 oferă o introducere interesantă în lumea astrofotografiei.

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